The Higher Education Program within the Department of EducationalLeadership & Policy Studies (DELPS) offers two programs: (a)M.Ed. in Higher Education and (b) Ph.D. in Higher EducationLeadership and Policy Studies. The M.Ed. program courses is offeredin two program delivery formats, one format is delivered on-campusfor both full- and part-time students; the other format isdelivered 100% online for part-time learners. The Ph.D. programcurriculum is delivered on-campus for full- and part-timestudents.M.Ed. courses include, but are not limited to: American HigherEducation, Organization and Administration, Student DevelopmentTheory, Assessment and Evaluation, Educational Policy and Planning,Cultural Foundations of Higher Education, Critical Issues in HigherEducation, Leadership for Change, Research for Educational Leaders,and Student Support Services.Ph.D. courses include, but are not limited to: Research Methods,Introductory and Intermediate Statistics, Student Development,Higher Education Law, Finance in Higher Education, Administrationof Higher Education in Multicultural Settings, Seminar in AdultEducation, and Policy, Politics, and Governance.Applications for adjunct teaching positions are accepted andreviewed on a continuous basis. Both the Department Chair andProgram Directors examine applicants.Adjunct faculty are expected to:• Employ a variety of pedagogical strategies focused on engagingadult learners;• Maintain course-specific records;• Evaluate student work in a timely manner,• Provide students with quality feedback as to their advancementtoward meeting student learning objectives;• Prepare to successfully facilitate face-to-face and/or onlineinstruction; and,• Deliver the pre-developed course content required for either theMasters or Doctoral degree.In addition to your CV, please attach a cover letter describingyour (a) qualifications, (b) interest in the position, (c) teachingexperience, and (d) teaching philosophy. Only applications with allrequired documents will be considered.The University of Houston is an Equal Opportunity/AffirmativeAction institution. Minorities, women, veterans and persons withdisabilities are encouraged to apply.Qualifications :To be considered for an adjunct position in the Department ofEducational Leadership & Policy Studies (DELPS), the followingrequirements must be met:1. Hold a current Doctorate degree from an accredited college oruniversity;2. Demonstrate a history of successful administrative or facultyexperience in the discipline;3. Demonstrate competence in assigned course content area(s);4. Possess excellent interpersonal skills and a clear understandingof adult learning theory (engaging adult students);5. Demonstrate ability to work collaboratively with faculty, staff,students, and institutional partners; and,6. Possess exceptional verbal, written, electronic, and digitalcommunication skills.Notes to Applicant: Only applications with all requireddocuments will be considered. Official transcripts are required fora faculty appointment and will be requested upon selection of finalcandidate. All positions at the University of Houston are securitysensitive and will require a criminal history check.
The business is reopening 800 stores on Thursday (see below) but has warned it cannot predict what impact of social distancing will have on its ability to trade or on customer demand. With in-store operations restricted by the size of shop, Greggs said it was expecting that sales could be lower than normal for some time.As a result of this, and a reduced menu in its stores, a proportion of the company’s store and production staff will remain furloughed for now.The business, which is securing funding through the Covid Corporate Financing Facility, has also reviewed its strategy while it assesses the longer-term implications of the crisis.This has prompted Greggs to temporarily suspended its new shop opening programme, with the exception of a few shops it was already legally committed to, or where it expects strong customer traffic. As a result, it plans to open about 60 shops and close about 50 over the year as a whole – a net gain of just 10 compared to the 100 it has grown by in recent years.Greggs is also approaching landlords with proposals in return for rent reductions, and plans to move to monthly rent payments from June.With lockdown making online shopping more important, the company is ramping up development of delivery and click-and-collect services. Among the 800 stores reopening this week, 19 shops will reopen for delivery and click-and-collect transactions.Greggs added it was continuing to invest in its new robotic frozen logistics facility, as this would improve efficiency.“Looking forward, although great uncertainty remains, we are excited to be resuming our service for many customers this week,” said Greggs CEO Roger Whiteside.“We are confident of our ability to adapt to market conditions in the short term while continuing to invest in the long-term growth of our business.”Greggs is due to report its interim results for 2020 on 28 July 2020. Greggs reopening plans revealedFollowing trials in shops in the north east, Greggs is opening 800 sites across the country on Thursday (18 June) for takeaway only.Staff have been trained in the operational changes and protective measures implemented across the retail estate, including:Floor markings and signage to help customers maintain social distancingProtective screens at countersAvailability of protective workwear for teamsAdditional, more frequent, cleaning measuresAvailability of hand sanitiserEncouragement of contactless card paymentA one-way system will be in place to help ensure social distancing and only one adult per household will be permitted to enter the shop at a time to join a social distanced queue. There will be a reduced number of workers behind the tills and a limited menu (see below).“Over the past month, we have carried out robust trials using our new operational and social distancing measures and they have progressed well,” said Greggs CEO Roger Whiteside. “This has allowed us to move to our next reopening phase with just over 800 of our shops welcoming customers back this week.“The health and safety of our colleagues and customers is our priority and, for this reason, we have put in the time and effort to make a thorough assessment of all shops. Although we will open with a reduced range, this will be a significant step in us helping the nation get back up and running and serving the communities that we operate in.”
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It is a time of change for the Harvard Corporation. In recent months, the oldest corporation in the Western Hemisphere, formally known as the President and Fellows of Harvard College, has welcomed a new member and a new senior fellow, even as it has undertaken a probing look at its own role and practices. President Drew Faust and Bob Reischauer ’63, the new senior fellow and the president of the Urban Institute in Washington, D.C., spoke with the Gazette about an eventful time for the Corporation.Q: Let’s begin with what’s new with the Corporation, and one of those things is the new senior fellow. How did you become involved in the Corporation?REISCHAUER: I served on the Board of Overseers from 1996 to 2002. Over the course of my six-year term, I really enjoyed reconnecting with Harvard and was unbelievably positively impressed by the dedication with which the leadership and the faculty performed their jobs. I was disappointed when my six years came to an end — but not disappointed for long. Late in 2002, I was asked if I’d be willing to fill a vacancy on the Corporation. I spent a good deal of time discussing the responsibilities and the nature of the board with members of the Corporation, and I realized that accepting the invitation would be a fascinating, if demanding, opportunity to serve an institution I care about a great deal. And it certainly has been.FAUST: On both counts!REISCHAUER: On both counts, that’s right. The only dissent occasionally comes from my wife — but being a Radcliffe graduate, she’s very understanding.Q: Now that you’ve been involved with the Corporation for some time, do you find it very different from other boards or committees that you’re familiar with? Is it more tied to tradition? Is its decision-making a little more organic because it’s a relatively small group of people?REISCHAUER: It is different. I’m on a number of boards, and none is quite like the Corporation. The discussion is quite open and frank because of the relationship that develops among the fellows and the president. I don’t think there are any holds barred, and we don’t hesitate to dive into issues and say what we think.Q: Have you discussed how the Corporation might change how it goes about its business with a new senior fellow in place?FAUST: Well, we’re in the midst of a governance review, and one of the things we’re discussing is the evolving role of the senior fellow. And I know we’ll talk about the review more in a moment. But I think there are a number of ways in which Bob’s own expertise in certain areas is already influencing how the Corporation operates. For instance, Bob’s the former head of the Congressional Budget Office. So he’s already helping us think more about how we can take a longer-term, more-strategic view of how we do our budgeting and planning, and what’s the right role for the Corporation in the process. And Bob’s broader experience — as the CEO of a major policy institute, as someone very savvy about Washington, as a Ph.D. who’s stayed close to the academic world but sees it from a bit of a distance — all of that is extremely valuable in all sorts of ways.Q: You’ve also recently welcomed a new fellow, with Jamie Houghton having retired in June. What do you think Bill Lee brings to the Corporation?REISCHAUER: Bill is someone who the rest of us on the Corporation have already come to know well. He was an Overseer until a couple of years ago, and greatly impressed everyone he dealt with. And he was a key member of the presidential search committee in 2006-07, which was a very intense experience. We got to know his judgment, his insight, his expertise with respect to many parts of the University, his terrific way with people. We’re extremely fortunate to have him.FAUST: I second everything Bob said. And I’d add that Bill’s being in Boston, and the time he’s already spending to get around and talk with different people in many parts of the University, are going to have a positive impact. He’s been making it around to see deans and professors and others — including the women’s swimming coach, who coached his daughter. He taught the new problem-solving workshop at the Law School last January. And he was saying to me recently how the opportunity to be engaged with students just gives you an extraordinary faith in the future. He’ll be a very engaged member of the Corporation, across the community; in fact, he already is.Q: Let’s come back to the governance review. The Corporation has been around since 1650. What was the impetus for this exercise in self-reflection?REISCHAUER: Well, there wasn’t a blinding flash of realization that occurred. It was something that grew out of discussions that we’d been having among ourselves about how we can function most effectively, given changes in Harvard and changes in the world. We have a component of our annual retreats that lets us be a little more self-reflective, but that really wasn’t, I think, sufficient. And so last fall we discussed the possibility of doing something more formal and more intense. It’s good practice for a board. And at a time when we’re asking all different parts of the University to examine how they can function most efficiently and effectively, and how they can adapt to change and serve all of Harvard in the best possible way, it seemed timely and important to look into the mirror ourselves.Q: What can you tell us about the review process, and where are you in that process now?FAUST: We started with a series of conversations about how we thought about the Corporation and our work. And we also, through the auspices of [Secretary of the Governing Boards] Marc Goodheart and [General Counsel] Bob Iuliano, had interviews with a range of senior staff members, former Corporation members, some recent Overseers, and others. And the Corporation members themselves spoke individually with the various deans, to get a sense of how they felt the Corporation was operating and how it can be improved. That gave us a good foundation of information.We realized that it would be very helpful to have someone who is expert in matters of university governance to be a facilitator of these conversations, so we engaged Dick Chait [of the Graduate School of Education] to work with us. Dick may well be the most knowledgeable and broadly experienced person around on the questions of governance in higher education. And we invited two current Overseers and a former Overseers president to be part of the deliberations — both because the Corporation is, of course, part of a two-board governance structure at Harvard, and because we thought it would be very valuable to have the perspectives of some wise, experienced people who haven’t themselves been on the Corporation but who understand the basic features of Harvard governance. How the Corporation thinks about its work is very closely related to the work of the Overseers.REISCHAUER: The three non-Corporation members who joined the group have really brought some extraordinary insight to us: Fran Fergusson, who was president of the Overseers a few years ago and was a longtime president of Vassar College; Rob Shapiro, who’s on the Overseers now and is a past president of the Harvard Alumni Association; and Seth Waxman, who’s the president of the Overseers this year. They’ve seen Harvard and various boards from different angles, and it’s really an extraordinary group of people.FAUST: The focus of our inquiry has been to work through our sense of what the work of the Corporation should be, and what it means to exercise its responsibilities in the context of a very complex 21st-century institution of higher education. The idea has been that, once we’ve taken that diagnostic step, we can begin to draw conclusions about the best way to organize ourselves to get that work done.REISCHAUER: So we’ve been talking first about our fundamental role and responsibilities as a board. And, with those considerations informing us, we’ve been discussing things like whether we have the capacity we need to fulfill that role as well as possible; whether we should be considering a fuller committee structure to draw on broader expertise; how often we should meet and what our agendas should really focus on; what’s the special role of the senior fellow; how we can interact most fruitfully with different parts of Harvard, and make sure we’re both hearing what we should hear and conveying what we should convey.Q: What sort of timetable are you looking at?FAUST: We’ve made some good progress, and we hope to move through this in an efficient and prompt manner. But it’s far more important for us to do it right than to deliver a work product on a specific date. I’d hope we’ll reach closure on some key propositions well before the end of the academic year and have more to report then. We also continue to get thoughts from people and factor them into our thinking.REISCHAUER: Yes, and if people in the community have advice for us, I hope they will continue to pass on their views. [Note: Comments can be sent in confidence to [email protected]]Q: The Corporation and the Overseers are seen as two very separate entities, but you’ve touched on a few areas where they’re working together. Can you tell us a little bit more about the evolving relationship between the two boards?FAUST: Collaboration between the two boards was a high priority for Jamie Houghton, and enhancing the relationship between the two was a real accomplishment of his time as senior fellow. He established it as a rather regular practice for several members of the Corporation, in addition to the president and treasurer, to attend the plenary sessions of the Overseers. We’ve also been having the Corporation and the Overseers’ executive committee get together for dinner twice a year. And the Overseers take part in various joint committees and activities with the Corporation — search committees for new Corporation members, including the president, being one of them.REISCHAUER: There have been times in which an issue has been before the Corporation, and we’ve invited a member from the Overseers with a particular expertise in that area to sit in and help us think things through — for instance, when we were considering the creation of the School of Engineering, or thinking about aspects of cross-School academic collaboration.Q: It’s interesting to hear about those interactions, because if you hear people in some quarters describe the Corporation, you would think that it’s an impenetrable secret society. What are some of the ways that the Corporation connects and communicates with the Harvard community?REISCHAUER: We communicate largely through the voice of the president who, after all, is more than just a member of the Corporation — she’s the presiding officer of the President and Fellows. Whether we’ve been communicating and getting around sufficiently, and how we can do better, are among the issues we’ve been discussing in the governance review. I know that, as I’ve been gearing up for my service as senior fellow, I’ve been spending quite a bit of time connecting individually with key people on campus. Several of my colleagues have also been touching base with various faculty and administrators, and I know Bill Lee has made this a real priority too, as he’s taken on his new role. I think the urge to examine all of this can be traced back to the last presidential search, in which many of us found it very useful to speak with deans, with groups of faculty, as well as with students and administrators to a greater degree than our basic meetings often allow. I know I learned a great deal from the experience, and formed some very helpful relationships.Q: Do you have any thoughts about what direction the governance review should take? Will there be structural changes? Will appointments be term-limited?REISCHAUER: We’re looking at many dimensions, including the ones you mention. The approach has been to think first about roles and responsibilities broadly, and then to consider what that implies for our structure and our practices — whether it’s capacity, or committees, or communications, or how long people are expected to serve. It all needs to fit together in the end, so it’s probably best to talk about things together once we’re further along, rather than preview where we might land on one question or another.Q: But you both have a lot of experience at Harvard. Do you have any particular areas in mind that you’re certain need to be addressed?FAUST: One real enhancement that I think would be helpful to the Corporation in a very important way would be to develop a process that helps bring wider, deeper expertise to the table when we need to make large strategic decisions on questions ranging from financial matters to capital planning matters, to a whole range of institutional challenges that seem to me far more complex than what the Corporation had to deal with 100 years ago, or 200 years ago.By way of example, we’ve created the Financial Management Committee this year, which reports to me. The logic of that is to have complex financial issues discussed at length by people who have expertise in a variety of financial areas, both within and beyond the University, so that that group’s expertise can then be shared with the Corporation as we make decisions about matters like what the endowment distribution should be, what our debt profile should be, things like that. We need to make sure that when issues come up for decision before the Corporation, all of that kind of background expertise has been mobilized and doesn’t have to be derived entirely from the Corporation members themselves as they consider a particular issue.REISCHAUER: And there are just so many consequential short-term issues that come before us that we need to be able to think about ways to stay focused on a long-term perspective, to see these issues in the context of a larger, forward-looking vision for the University as a whole. That’s an area that I think we’re going to stress.FAUST: Yes, to enable the Corporation to focus on strategic issues and not be consumed by immediate demands. It’s what we all do in our lives — try to make sure the urgent doesn’t crowd out the important, right? As we’ve started this very self-conscious process of evaluation, we find that we are doing our work differently already, even apart from whatever structural changes we might undertake. We’ve been thinking harder about what belongs on our agendas. We’ve been thinking harder about our budget and planning processes, and how we deal both with opportunities and with risks. It’s changed the Corporation already.
Call it prescience, or fortuitous timing.Just hours after President Obama proposed corporate tax reform in exchange for congressional support of a $302 billion transportation bill to pay for badly needed repairs to the nation’s decaying highways, roads, and bridges, power brokers from business, academia, and the federal government gathered at Harvard Business School (HBS) Wednesday evening to begin a private, two-day summit, “America on the Move: Transportation and Infrastructure for the 21st Century.”The conference was convened to apply strategic thinking to key challenges facing the United States in the global marketplace in fundamental areas that drive and support the economy, such as energy, information technology, and the transportation of goods and people.The session brought together for the first time an array of business executives, including General Electric chairman and CEO Jeffrey Immelt, General Motors CEO Mary Barra, and Verizon chairman and CEO Lowell McAdam, with HBS faculty like Jan Rivkin, Michael Porter, and Willy Shih, as well as government leaders such as U.S. Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx, U.S. Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.), former Federal Aviation Administration head Jane Garvey, and others.“Somewhere out there, someplace there’s going to be an infrastructure innovation that’s going to be funded and advanced ahead of the United States,” said General Electric chairman Jeffrey Immelt, M.B.A. ’82. “The world is not going to wait.”The gathering is part of an ongoing effort, the U.S. Competitiveness Project, that launched three years ago to use the intellectual capital and global reach of HBS to think about ways to improve or restore the nation’s competitive edge in complex, critical domains such as K-12 education and, now, infrastructure and transportation.“Some of our greatest industries in America move goods, people, or information,” said Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Ernest L. Arbuckle Professor of Business Administration at HBS, who chairs the summit. “This is an area of incredible strength.”But the nation has fallen behind some other countries in many important arenas, resulting in significant cost to American companies and to the economy as a whole.According to a recent HBS survey, twice as many business leaders say the cost and quality of using cars, trucks, trains, and planes has gotten worse over last three years than those who say it’s gotten better. Sixty percent said that moving goods domestically was a major difficulty.Airline flight delays and cancellations alone, for example, cost an estimated $30 billion a year, she said.“There are major economic consequences to not paying attention [and] great positive impact if we do,” said Kanter during the opening plenary in the Spangler Center auditorium.HBS Dean Nitin Nohria recalled how different the United States was when he first arrived 30 years ago from India, where telephone service, electricity, and even bridges were often unreliable.“You could see how much the competitiveness of this country came from the extraordinary infrastructure that the country had. If you never lived here and you first experienced it, I promise you, you would just be blown away by it, as I was when I first came to this country,” he said.But after traveling the world in recent years, Nohria said, that’s no longer the case.“When you’ve been so far ahead for so long, it’s easy to take it for granted. That’s the challenge that I think about when it comes to the infrastructure of this country, which we in the U.S. Competitiveness Project have begun to take seriously,” Nohria said.“Some of our greatest industries in America move goods, people, or information. This is an area of incredible strength,” noted HBS Professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter.“Everybody in this country believes in private enterprise, and it’s the greatest engine that we have. But private enterprise flourishes because it enjoys a commons that we can all benefit from,” he said. “Infrastructure is the one great thing that unites us all because we all benefit from it in so many ways.During his 30 years at GE, Immelt said he has seen a huge shift in the identity of the company’s biggest customers for infrastructure-related goods and services. Where once it was the United States, now places like China and Dubai lead the way.“Infrastructure is a hard place to invest, but it can also be a massive game-changer,” Immelt said. “This is the way societies become wealthy or lose their wealth, by making smart or dumb decisions around infrastructure.”Immelt recalled the awkward irony of having to ask Nigeria’s richest executive to call him back on Immelt’s landline while the two were brokering a deal because he didn’t have any cellular reception at his home in Fairfield County, Conn.Infrastructure’s “great strength may be simultaneously its greatest weakness: It doesn’t belong to anyone. And we will struggle with … fundamental questions. How do we collectively own something that’s so critical to our shared prosperity and, in particular, when it forces us to make investments now for benefits that come much later?” asked Patrick Gallagher, the acting deputy Secretary of Commerce.“It really should be an alarm call that we’re seeing the lowest levels of investment in infrastructure since World War II. Our investment intensity — how much we spend as a percentage of GDP — is very low relative to other parts of the world. It’s about 2 percent in the United States. Compare that with 5 percent in Europe and almost 10 percent in China,” said Gallagher.While American political leaders continue to argue over what the nation’s transportation and infrastructure priorities ought to be and how much — if anything — should be spent on them, time and progress forge ahead.“Somewhere out there, someplace there’s going to be an infrastructure innovation that’s going to be funded and advanced ahead of the United States,” said Immelt. “The world is not going to wait.”
Share:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Pixabay / MGN Image ALBANY — The President of the New York State United Teachers has some concerns about safety and clarity in Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s decision to reopen public schools this fall.“We have been clear all along: Health and safety is the most important consideration in reopening school buildings. Viral infection rates tell only one part of the story,” NYSUT President Andy Pallotta said in a press release. “Many educators and parents have anxiety about local school district reopening plans that have been submitted to the state — if they even have been yet, with 127 districts that didn’t bother to submit them by last week and 50 considered incomplete by the state.”Pallotta said a lack of guidance on specific procedures for closure, testing and contact tracing in the event of positive tests in the schools, is concerning to teachers and parents alike.“Right now, there may be some areas where parents and educators are confident in their district’s plan, but in many others, we know they aren’t. No district should consider themselves ready to reopen buildings until their plans are safe and everything in that plan meant to keep the school community safe is implemented,” he said. “Being safe means parents and teachers must be confident in the reopening plan, and it is welcome news that districts must meet with parents and teachers this month. We’re thankful the governor agrees that forcing people back into the classroom when they feel their health is threatened is not what should happen. So if districts need to phase in the reopening of buildings, so be it. We must err on the side of caution. Period.”
View Comments Forget Sandy and Danny, this is the summer love story of Sandy and Tiquan! American Idol alum turned viral video maven Todrick Hall is at it again, and this time he’s taking one of our favorite movie musicals, Grease, to a whole new level. This silly sendup taught us some very important lessons about interracial dating, including “if she can’t use your comb, then don’t bring her home.” Thanks for the tip, guys! See Tiquan rock Sandy’s world in the parody video below! Tell us more, tell us more, like do he got a grill?
About the Photographer Show Closed This production ended its run on Sept. 6, 2015 Matthew Murphy is a New York City-based photographer specializing in theater and dance. His work appears regularly in the Arts and Leisure section of The New York Times and additional credits include Bravo TV, New York Magazine, Vanity Fair, The Village Voice, Dance Magazine, The Financial Times and The New York Post. He is a former member of American Ballet Theatre. For more information visit MurphyMade.com. View Comments On the Town Related Shows Meet On the Town’s Kristine Covillo. Covillo tells us how she started dancing at the wee age of two (!) and knew by the third grade that dancing was of the utmost importance to her. Click through this gallery of the amazing dancer in action! Additional Credits: Hair and Makeup: Alex Michaels; Styling: David Withrow; Production Assistant: Nessie Nankivell; Photo Post-Production: Kat Hennessey
The stage adaptation of Rear Window will receive its world premiere at Hartford Stage as part of its 2015-16 season. The thriller, written by Keith Reddin and based on Cornell Woolrich’s iconic 1942 short story—which also inspired Alfred Hitchcock’s Rear Window in 1954—will be directed by Darko Tresnjak (A Gentleman’s Guide to Love and Murder). Performance dates and casting have not yet been announced.A production of the thriller was previously reported to be eyeing Broadway in 2013, with Terry Kinney on board to direct. No official word yet if the new production has plans for a bow on the Great White Way.Rear Window follows L.B. “Jeff” Jefferies, a wheelchair-bound photographer who believes he has witnessed a murder while spying on a neighboring New York City apartment. He enlists the help of his girlfriend Lisa and nurse Stella to investigate, putting one of them much closer to the scene of the alleged crime than intended.The short story, originally published as It Had to Be Murder, was also the inspiration for Alfred Hitchcock’s 1954 feature Rear Window. The James Stewart and Grace Kelly-led flick received four Academy Award nominations and holds a spot in AFI’s “100 Years… 100 Movies” list.The Hartford Stage lineup also includes the world premiere of Christopher Shinn’s An Opening in Time, Body of an American by Dan O’Brien, a staging of Romeo and Juliet helmed by Tresnjak and Emily Mann’s Having Our Say. The season will also included a new musical directed by Tresnjak. View Comments
Tropical Storm Irma blew powerful winds of up to 70 mph when she hit Georgia, providing homeowners, tree removal services and insurance companies plenty of work to do. Examining storm-damaged trees can provide insight into why some trees “fail” during windstorms.Two of the most common forms of tree damage during windstorms are limb breakage and windthrow, or trees uprooted or broken by wind. Major limbs often fail when a heavy wind load, or the force on a structure due to the impact of wind, affects multi-stemmed trees or trees with narrow, vertical branches. Branches and stems that grow close together are structurally weaker than branches or stems that grow at wider, more horizontal angles. Over time, included bark becomes trapped between narrow, vertical branches and stems. As the tree becomes larger, this bark acts as a wedge, forcing the branches further apart. Eventually, the right wind comes along and pushes the branches or stems just far enough apart to split the wood.To help prevent this, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension experts recommend selecting only those trees that have one main stem and wide branch angles (45 degrees or wider) when adding new trees to your landscape. Correct any narrow, vertical branches and co-dominate stems with proper pruning and training while the trees are young.Soft-wooded, fast-growing trees, such as willow, silver maple, ‘Bradford’ pear and edible pear species, tend to have very weak, narrow branches that grow vertically. These species are generally considered short-lived since they have a tendency to self-destruct after about 20 years. They are also prone to wood rot and are often the trees that fail in windstorms. Avoid planting these types of trees close to your house or near high traffic areas. Trees that blow over, roots and all, are typically those that have shallow root systems. For example, in the recent storms, many Leyland cypress trees were wind-thrown. Wind-throw is also common when high winds are accompanied or preceded by heavy rains. When the ground is saturated and the soil becomes soft, trees are easily uprooted.Shallow root systems may be the result of compacted soils, frequent shallow watering, and limited soil volume adjacent to walls, foundations, driveways, sidewalks and parking lots. Trees can also blow over and/or be uprooted because of root damage due to soil excavation, the use of heavy equipment over the tree’s critical root zone, or trenching for utilities. Avoid planting trees in areas that have limited space for root growth and protect trees from construction damage. Many large, older trees develop internal wood rot, compromising the structural stability of the tree. Wood rot in landscape trees is often the result of poor pruning practices, especially “topping” and other bad pruning cuts (such as leaving branch stubs) that create open wounds for extended periods. These open wounds allow water to penetrate the tree’s wood, which invites wood rot and wood-decaying fungi. By the time conks or mushrooms grow on the tree trunk or root flare, the tree is in advanced stages of decay and may be at risk of root or stem failure. Infection and growth of the fungus in the wood take years to produce outward signs of conks and mushrooms. There is no cure for wood decay. When decay fungi are present, it’s only a matter of time before the strength of the tree’s stems or roots is compromised, causing the tree to break or fall. With recent rainfall amounts and saturated soils, keep a close eye on these types of trees for any shifting of the root plate and soil cracks that might indicate impending root failure for as long as these trees remain standing. Eventual tree removal is recommended. If you have big, old trees on your property, consider consulting a certified arborist. If a tree is determined to be hazardous, a certified arborist will recommend removing or selectively pruning the tree to diminish the hazard. Locate a certified arborist online at www.isa-arbor.com.